Archive for the ‘SQL injection’ Category

Firefox add-ons for web app assessments

Friday, February 4th, 2011

These add-ons are mainly related to web application security, you see these types of list related to firefox add-ons but these are the ones that I think are the most helpful. Firefox has a nice category called web application security penetration testing that has a lot of the plugins I’ll mention.  Not all plugins in this category are worthwhile which is why I’m sharing my list.

Detecting cross site scripting

XSS – me

Acunetix xss scanner

I’ve included the link to the Acunetix add-on from my site. You have to sign up with Acunetix in order to receive the add-on and even then it comes bundled with an executable. If for some reason my link doesn’t work with your version of firefox then simply go to the Acunetix site and download their latest version.

Detecting sql injection

SQL inject me

Developer tools are always handy to have because if you can build it you can break it. The web developer add-on will allow you to easily see hidden form fields, javascript, cookies, etc. Firebug will allow you to easily see how the application is built by simply mouseing over the layout. Firebug is also a debugger and will allow you to set breakpoints for javascript, both are a must have.

Firebug

Web developer

Modification tools, if you want to modify a request before it’s sent to the server tamper data is a great tool inside the browser for the job. User agent switcher will allow you to pretend to be any browser you’d like, don’t forget the starbucks iphone problem. Add n edit cookies is another modification tool that will allow you to easily change cookies so that you can impersonate a cookie you have obtained.

Tamper data

User agent switcher

Add n edit cookies

Miscellaneous add-ons. Show IP is a great add-on that will show you the IP connecting to, this may seem lame at first but when you are assessing multiple environments or malware this is always handy. Leet key is another great tool inside the browser that will perform encoding (base64, URL, rot13, etc) and even generate hashes.

Show IP

Leet key

Notable mentions

Foxy proxy

Noscript

If you have any other recommendations please let me know.

XSS-Me tool & html frames

Tuesday, July 15th, 2008

Security Compass has created a series of Firefox add-ons that aid in performing web application assessment. These tools are a great convenient way of finding vulnerabilities within web applications. I do want to point out that even though these tools are useful there is no guarantee all vulnerabilities will be found.

XSS-Me is one of the tools in the series that helps to find cross site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities within web applications. The tool works by locating forms within a web page then tries various inputs into those forms to see if the inputs on that page are vulnerable. A screen shot of how the tool should look inside Firefox can be seen below.

How XSS-Me should look inside Firefox

 

Now all you have to do is click “Run all tests” and let XSS-Me do its thing. Keep in mind that XSS-Me will also find any hidden forms within a page as well. So this is how things are suppose to work but you’ll eventually come across a page that has forms but XSS-Me doesn’t detect them, this is because the page you are viewing has frames. A good example of this is Chris Rohlf’s site seen below.

XSS-Me doesn’t detect the search form

From the screen shot you can see there is a search form at the top of the page but XSS-Me doesn’t detect its presence. This is because the search form is wrapped inside of a frame. A quick little tip to get around this problem is to open the frame in another tab/window. All you have to do in Firefox is right click on the frame then select “This Frame > Open Frame in New Tab”. A screen shot can be seen below.

Right click to open frame

Once you have the frame in a new tab XSS-Me will detect the form as normal. This can be seen in the screen shot below.

Frame in new tab

This same technique will apply to the SQL Inject Me tool from Security Compass as well because it also tries to search for forms within a web page.

This tip was passed along to me by Sahba Kazerooni who works at Security Compass. I have no affiliation with Security Compass but I met Sahba and some other Security Compass employees at a conference and they were all down to earth guys who had great knowledge and experience when it came to information security. So thanks for the tip Sahba and hopefully this tip will help others secure their web applications as well.

 

Widespread SQL injection & Javascript malware

Thursday, May 15th, 2008

This is the first time I have ever seen SQL injection this widespread and in an automated fashion. Before it’s all said and done this could be !!! HUGE !!!. News of this has been trickling out since the end of April with the first hint of it at the beginning of the year.

Basically what’s happening is attackers are using SQL injection, in some sort of automated fashion, to insert Javascript malware into databases of some popular websites, the United Nations for example. Once a user visits an infected website (un.org) they will unknowingly be sent to a malicious site where attackers try numerous exploits to see if they succeed. Keep in mind the user will remain on un.org as if everything is fine and dandy but in the background exploits are being launched.

What’s so scary about these widespread infections is that the Javascript malware will remain on the database until the webmaster removes it. Even then the websites will still be vulnerable to SQL injection so attackers could reinsert malware until the vulnerability is fixed. Also attackers could easily update the location of their malicious site through SQL injection. For example lets say attackers are using http://evilattacker.com for launching their exploits but this URL gets blacklisted, they could then update infected databases with a new URL, say http://maliciousattacker.com. So this type of widespread epidemic is the gift that keeps on giving.

I’ve seen these attacks come across the IDS (intrusion detection system) where users are visiting infected URL’s. Of course attackers could easily move their operations to different URL’s. Some exploit URL’s I’ve seen so far are nihaorr1.com, nmidahena.com, aspder.com, rirwow.cn, and wowyeye.cn. I performed searches to get an idea of the infection numbers, now doing a search for the offending URL won’t give you a 1 to 1 relationship but it will give you a ballpark figure. Take a look at the “Results” numbers in the following screen shots.

nihaorr1.com Infections

nmidahena.com Infections

aspder.com Infections

Also check out this screen shot from ririwow.cn, you’ll get a laugh from it.

ririwow.cn

So the ballpark infection just from these three URL’s is 500,000, scary isn’t it. Even if this number is 400,000 off that still leaves 100,000 sites infected. There’s no way at this point to verify the number but this is definitely the largest SQL injection campaign I have ever seen. It’s these URL’s along with others that are hosting the Javascript malware. It’s common to see the attackers use Javascript to open zero pixel iframes so the attack appears hidden. The Javascript files I’ve seen so far are short names with either a single letter or number (e.g. m.js, 1.js, jp.js, etc). So the request that happens in the background will look like http://ririwow.cn/jp.js. In order to see the request one would have to use a local web proxy. Without a proxy you would never see the request. So I’m going to keep my eyes peeled in the coming months to see how this epidemic plays out.

Below are some other good articles related to this topic

Internet Storm Center

Websense

ShadowServer

Webscarab Tutorial Part 3 (fuzzing)

Tuesday, September 25th, 2007

Part 2 covered the neat functionality of session ID analysis within Webscarab. Now we’ll focus on another great function within Webscarab, fuzzing. I define fuzzing as testing the input of an application by trying various parameters that the input may not expect. These parameters don’t have to be random, in my opinion it’s best when you tailor your parameters depending on the application. When fuzzing you typically want to inject “command & control” parameters into the input to find the most serious vulnerability. For example if a web application is expecting a social security number I may inject html parameters such as ” < / > ” to manipulate the look, feel, and operation of a web application. I don’t want to delve a whole lot into fuzzing because there are books out there that talk about this one subject. This tutorial is going to focus on using Webscarab to fuzz web applications and find vulnerabilities. Hopefully by the end of this tutorial you will better understand the technical aspects of fuzzing as oppose to the concept of fuzzing, but more reading on fuzzing web applications may be required.

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